This workshop is intended to help supervisors, managers, trainers, engineers, or anyone tasked with supporting refinery or process plant operation in safely troubleshooting unit technical problems. The workshop begins with a review of the need for improvement and a discussion of foundational skills. The class provides a sound basic method for troubleshooting and provides job aids to guide use of the method. Participants practice troubleshooting on a series of scenarios on the Simtronics DSS-100 Process Simulator. The workshop will provide attendees skills needed on how to teach and coach troubleshooting . In addition, it will introduce important points for unit leadership during upsets and how to implement and support an effective troubleshooting program.
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With all the development, industrial activities and community activities in Indonesia, noise has become one of the problems that arises in some places in Indonesia. Indonesia already has some regulations, guidelines, and standards to safeguard the noise levels. This is important mainly to support a healthy environment for the people, and also to improve budgeting certainty of projects that will produce noise during their operations.
The following are the regulations, standards and guidelines related with environmental noise in Indonesia.
Environmental Noise Regulations
Regulations regarding environmental noise generally can be categorized into two types which are emission regulation and immission regulation. Emission regulations regulate how much noise can a noise source produces noise, while immission regulation regulates how much noise can a receiver or area receives noise.
Examples of noise emission regulations in Indonesia are:
Decree of Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 56 year 2019 (P.56/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/10/2019) regarding noise limits of new types of motorized vehicles and in production M category, N category, and L category.
Decree of Minister of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia No. PM 62, year 2021 regarding civil aviation safety section 36 regarding noise standard dan type certification and aircraft airworthiness
The two ministerial decrees above regulate how much noise can be produced by vehicles that are used on road and aircraft that can operate within Indonesian territory.
The regulation that regulates environmental noise level at the receiver is:
Decree of Minister of Environment No. 48 year 1996 about noise level limits
Beside the regulations above, there are other requirement such as one written on Government Regulation (PP) No. 36 year 2005 regarding implementation rules of the Law No. 28 year 2002 regarding buildings. One of the points require noise reduction means for toll roads in residential area or existing city centers.
Guidelines regarding Environmental Noise
Beside the regulation, there are some technical guidelines that are written by Ministry of Public Works as follows:
Technical guidelines Ditjen Bina Marga No. 36 year 1999: Noise barrier planning guidelines In these guidelines, criteria to categorize area as safe, moderate and high risk are given. Moreover, the guidelines also state measurement techniques for measurement beside road and common type, shape and material of noise barriers.
Construction and building guidelines Pd T-10-2004-B: Road traffic noise prediction.
These guidelines adopt calculations from Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CoRTN, UK, 1998) which contain noise calculation method based on traffic volume and speed. There are also corrections for heavy vehicle percentage, speed, gradient and road surface. From this calculation, propagation to receiver can be calculated considering distance, screening, reflection and angle of view.
Construction and building guidelines Pd T-16-2005-B: Mitigation of road traffic noise
The guidelines lay out methods to mitigate noise from traffic which is based on measurement (which are written on Permen LH No. 48 year 1996 and guidelines No.36 year 1999 above) and can also be based on predictions (Following construction and building guidelines Pd T-10-2004-B)
Environmental Noise Standards
Beside the regulations and guidelines, there are Indonesian National Standard (SNI) document that are written by National Standardization Body (BSN) that are related to environmental noise:
SNI 19-6878-2002 – Road traffic noise test L10 and Leq This standard contains test method which state testing procedure and data processing steps to calculate LA to L10 and Leq
SNI 8427:2017 – Pengukuran tingkat kebisingan lingkungan This standard contains measurement method that is similar to Kepmen LH No.48 year 1996 which is to measure noise samples for 10 minutes across 24 hours period. Noise levels then can be calculated based on its time slice which are Ls (daytime noise), Lm (nighttime noise), and Lsm (day-night noise, with 5 dB penalty for nighttime).
How much sound can your walls block? With STC testing in Field Sound Transmission Class measurement
In addition to the wall STC test performed in the testing laboratory, By using a standard ASTM E90 or ISO 140 eye test or building a mock up test, we can also provide onsite acoustics testing services for rooms that have already been built. This is known as the Field STC test in accordance with ASTM E336 or ISO 140-4, where the field STC test value is usually low. Than the results of the STC tested from the laboratory This is due to the fact that laboratory testing has completely eliminated the factor causing flanking transmission, known as flanking noise. This is different from the actual installation location where there is still a flanking transmission factor.
Test in the laboratory and the room where everything was installed is complete. Geonoise (Thailand) Co., Ltd. offers all types of sound testing services by modern and international standards And give advice that is technically correct by the audio engineer directly
Most industrial activities create noise that can be harmful to the environment as well as to their workers. To minimize this effect, governments, associations, and companies have created regulations, standards, and codes to set the allowable noise both inside the sites, that can be harmful to the workers, as well as to the environment. In a lot of cases, during the planning phase, the plant owner and project management want to be sure that the noise levels are acceptable. Since the plant is not built yet, what can be done is creating a noise model to simulate the plant, so that the noise levels can be predicted. In this article, we will explore how we can do so.
The first thing we must know is how much noise does the noise sources inside of the plant will emit. The noise source is usually described in two ways which is Sound Power Level (Lw or SWL), and Sound Pressure Level (Lp or SPL) in certain distance, most commonly Lp in 1 m distance. There are multiple ways to get this information for certain noise sources. First, if the equipment type and model have been chosen, the equipment manufacturer will normally report the noise level in their datasheet. However, this is not usually the case with most of noise predictions since the noise study is normally done before the equipment suppliers are appointed. So, the second way to be able to predict the noise emission is by following empirical formulas that are developed by researchers. You can find such formulas in some textbooks, journals, and papers. For rotating parts, you will need its rated power and rotational speed to be able to estimate the noise emission.
For example, in the speed range of 3000-3600 rpm, the noise level of a pump with drive motor power above 75 kW can be predicted using the following equation:
Suppose a pump with rotational speed of 3000 rpm and 100 kW, according to the formula, it can be estimated that the noise level at 1 m from the pump would be 92 dB. And suppose the noise source can be considered as point source on the ground (hemisphere propagation), the sound power level of the pump can be calculated using the following formula:
Where r is the distance from source to receiver
And in this case, the predicted Lw would be 100 dB.
Thirds, noise measurement to a similar equipment can also be an option to be able to determine the noise level of the new equipment. Another option, in some countries, there are noise emission limit for certain equipment, you can use that limit if it is applicable for your project.
After the Lw of all noise sources is obtained, we want to calculate the noise levels (the Lp) at the receivers. There are some standards which procedure can be followed to calculate this. Few of which are ISO 9613-2, NORD 2000, CNOSSOS EU, and many others. Most of the standards consider some factors to the calculation such as distance, atmospheric absorption, ground reflection, screening effect (from barriers and obstacles) and other factors such as volume absorption from vegetation, industrial site, etc. Most consultants and projects will require a software such as SoundPLAN to do this calculation.
Depending the project, there are few types of noise limit which compliance will need to be ensured. The most common ones are environmental noise limit, noise exposure limit, area noise limit and absolute noise limit. Besides, the noise level during emergency is also modelled so that the information can be used for safety and PAGA (Public Address and General Alarm) study.
Environmental noise limit is usually calculated for the plant’s contribution to the plant’s boundary as well as to the nearest sensitive receiver such as residential and school near the plant. How this is accessed depends on the regulation applicable on the plant area. In Indonesia for example, the noise limit for residential area is Lsm 55 dBA and industrial area is Lsm 70 dBA. Lsm is a measure like Ldn, but the night noise level addition is 5 dB instead of the 10 dB addition that most other countries, especially Europeans use. To ensure compliance with this regulation, the noise level at fence should be less than Lsm 70 dBA, and suppose there is a residential area nearby, the contribution from the site should be less than 55 dBA. It is also advisable to measure the existing noise level at the sensitive receivers to make the study more relevant to the situation.
Noise exposure limit is the maximum exposure to noise that the workers get during their working period. In Indonesia, the noise exposure limit is 85 dBA for 8 working hours. To change the working hours, 3 dB exchange rate is used. For example, if the noise level in the plant is 88 dBA, then the workers can only work there for 4 hours, if it is 91 dBA, then the time limit is 2 hours, and so on. To extend the working hours on a noisy area, the options are to actually reduce the noise level by reducing the noise emission from the source or noise control at transmission (for example using barrier), or by usage of Hearing Protection Device (HPD) for the workers such as ear plugs and ear muffs. The noise exposure of workers after usage of HPD can be calculated using the following formula:
Where NRR is the noise reduction rating of the HPD in dB.
Different area might have different noise level limits, and therefore area noise limits are useful. For example, in an unmanned mechanical room, the noise level can be high, for instance 110 dBA. However, inside of the site office, the allowable noise level is much lower, for example 50 dBA. This noise level shall be calculated to ensure compliance with the noise limit. Different companies might have different limits for this to ensure their employees’ health and productivity. If the area is indoor and the noise source is outdoor, then the interior noise level can be estimated using standards such as ISO 12354-3.
The absolute noise limit is the highest noise level allowable at the plant, and shall not be exceeded at any times, including emergency. In most cases, the absolute noise limit for impulsive sound is 140 dBA. To ensure compliance with this requirement, potential high-level noise shall be calculated, for example safety valves.
During emergency, different noise sources than normal situation will be activated, such as flare, blowdown valves, fire pumps, and other equipment. In such cases, the sound from the alarm and Public Address system must be able to be heard by the workers inside of the plant. Normally the target for the SPL from the PAGA system should be higher than 10 dB above the noise level. Therefore, the noise level during emergency in each area should be well-known.
The COVID-19 lockdown could become an unprecedented natural experiment in noise pollution. Some of the world’s most vocal animals — birds and whales — might already be benefiting from a quieter environment.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), noise pollution affects over 100 million people across Europe and, in Western Europe alone, road traffic accounts for premature deaths equivalent to the loss of roughly “1.6 million healthy years of life.”
Take the disturbance to human health out of the equation, and noise remains a big source of pollution for the other inhabitants of the planet as well, namely, animals.
But how much have animals in countries on lockdown really benefited from the drop in noise levels? Turns out, that’s a very difficult question to answer.
Birds will benefit the most
Birds — by far the most visible animals found in cities, and the most vocal — stand to be among the biggest beneficiaries of quieter streets and parks.
The signals birds send each other through song is a means of survival. Without the ability to sing, hear and be heard, birds would have a difficult time finding a mate or defending their territory from predators.
Human activity influences bird behavior, even prompting them to communicate at less ‘busy’ times of day
The swift rise of human-made noise — also known as anthropogenic noise — over the past century has made this harder for birds.
Just like humans who have to speak up in a loud setting, birds, too, have to sing louder to communicate properly in today’s noisy world, according to ornithologist Henrik Brumm, who heads the research group for the communication and social behavior of birds at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology near Munich.
“This happens really fast,” Brumm told DW. “We found out that it takes roughly 300 milliseconds, so less than 1 second, for birds to readjust when the level of noise rises. So, when their surroundings become louder, they sing louder, too.”
Are birds getting quieter? Maybe.
Birds are already known to sing more quietly in the early morning hours of the weekends, says Brumm. The reason: there’s less traffic to compete with.
With Europe on lockdown, Germany for its part, has seen passenger air travel slashed by over 90%. Moreover, car traffic has dropped by more than 50% and trains are running at less 25% their usual rates.
A recent study from the Max Planck Institute also suggests that chronic traffic noise can have a negative effect on embryo mortality and growth in zebra finches. This, in turn, could mean that the current lockdowns coinciding with mating season could lead to not only more, but also healthier hatchlings. That is, as long as their parents choose a spot that’s still safe from humans after the lockdown ends.
Though it’s difficult to speculate without real-time data, Brumm says, it stands to reason that the current period of quiet could mean birds might be singing more softly than usual, which would already be a huge benefit.
At land or sea, noise is bad news for animals
Birds aren’t the only animals that stand to benefit from less noise. According to a recent study published in the journal Biology Letters, noise pollution affects any number of creatures ranging from frogs, to shrimp, to fish, mammals, mussels and snakes.
In fact, another habitat garnering more and more attention for noise pollution is the ocean. As bioacoustics expert Christopher Clark described it in with Yale’s environmental magazine, the din from oil and gas activity, for example, is filling entire ocean basins with “one big storm of noise.”
While research on noise pollution and marine life, just like with ornithology, is in its early stages, a landmark study conducted in the days after 9/11 found that less shipping traffic seemed to make whales calmer.
Examining the feces of right whales — a species of baleen whale that can reach 15 meters in length and weigh up to 70 tons — researchers found that fewer ships in the waters along the US-Canadian coast correlated with lower stress hormones.
The noise levels from shipping traffic, whose 20–200 Hz hum disturbs sea life despite being a low frequency, decreased by 6 decibels, with a significant reduction below 150Hz .
An unprecedented time for researchers
Just like ornithologists, marine life researchers have also found correlations between noise and interruptions in behaviors like foraging and mating. Whales, like birds, also “mask.” That is to say, they sing louder to be heard over noise disturbances, be they high or low frequency sounds.
“It’s really a huge footprint that these activities have in the ocean,” according to Nathan Merchant, an expert on noise and bioacoustics at the UK’s Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS).
And the sources of noise pollution — ranging from shipping, to wind farms, to the sequence of powerful blasts from seismic air gun tests used to locate oil and gas deposits in the ocean deep — are even harder to escape in the ocean than on land.
“It has a lot to do with how sound travels under water. Sound can travel much further and much faster than in air,” Merchant told DW.
Instruments off the coast of North America, for example, can detect seismic air gun testing as far away as the Brazilian coast.
With many cruises suspended, oil freighter traffic impacted by an oil price crash and rig activity being run by skeleton crews to curb the spread of COVID-19, marine biologists could potentially find a treasure trove of data once they’re allowed to go back into the field.
“We have underwater noise recorders at sea as we speak, but they aren’t cabled to land. So, we’ll find out when get out on a ship in several months’ time and get the data back,” Merchant said.
The more interesting question by that point might be how marine life responds to a sudden reintroduction of the human cacophony after an unexpected period of rest.